CBD References and Clinical Studies


CBD Origin: Research Shows CBD Benefits 50+ Conditions
National Library of Medicine: Cannabinoids in Health and Disease
Harvard Health Publishing: Cannabidiol (CBD) - What We Know and What We Don't

National Library of Medicine: Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure
National Library of Medicine: The Cannabinoids Δ8THC, CBD, and HU-308 Act via Distinct Receptors to Reduce Corneal Pain and Inflammation
National Library of Medicine: Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrit


National Library of Medicine: High Blood Pressure: The Leading Global Burden of Disease Risk Factor and the Need for Worldwide Prevention Programs
National Library of Medicine: Obesity and cannabis use: results from 2 representative national surveys
National Library of Medicine: Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors

National Library of Medicine: A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans
National Library of Medicine: Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice
National Library of Medicine: Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
National Library of Medicine: Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

National Library of Medicine: Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation
National Library of Medicine: An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced In-testinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

The American Society of Bone and Mineral Research: Cannabidiol, a Major NonΔPsychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts
National Library of Medicine: Cannabinoids and the skeleton: from marijuana to reversal of bone loss
National Library of Medicine: Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass

National Library of Medicine: The safety and efficacy of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream for reduction of human cheek skin sebum and erythema content


[174] Zachary Wilmer Reichenbach and Ron Schey, “Cannabinoids and GI Disorders: Endogenous and Exogenous,” Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology 14, no. 4 (2016): 461–477. doi:10.1007/s11938-016-0110.

[175] Bradley E. Alger, “Getting High on the Endocannabinoid System,” Cerebrum: The Dana Forum on Brain Science (2013): 14.

[176] Yann LeStrat and Bernard Le Foll, “Obesity and Cannabis Use: Results From 2 Representative National Surveys,” American Journal of Epidemiology 174, no. 8 (2011): 929–933. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr200.

[177] L. Weiss, M. Zeira, S. Reich, M. Har-Noy, R. Mechoulam, S. Slavin, and R. Gallily, “Cannabidiol Low-ers Incidence of Diabetes in Non-obese Diabetic Mice,” Autoimmunity 39, no. 2 (2006): 143–151.

[178] Abigail Klein Leichman, “Cannabis Extract to Be Used to Treat Diabetes,” Israel 21c, April 21, 2015, www.israel21c.org/cannabis-extract -to-be-used-to-treat-diabetes/.

[179] H. J. Parray and J. W. Yun, “Cannabidiol Promotes Browning in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 416 (2016): 131–139.

[180] E. A. Penner, H. Buettner, and M. A. Mittleman, “Marijuana Use on Glucose, Insulin, and Insulin Resistance among US Adults,” American Journal of Medicine 126 (2013): 583–589.

[181] Sabine Steffens, Niels R. Veillard, Claire Arnaud, Graziano Pelli, Fabienne Burger, Christian Staub, Andreas Zimmer, Jean-Louis Frossard, and François Mach, “Low Dose Oral Cannabinoid Ther-apy Reduces Progression of Atherosclerosis in Mice,” Nature 434 (2005): 782–786.

[182] Francois Mach and Sabine Steffens, “The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Ath-erosclerosis,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology 20, no. S1 (2008): 53–57. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01685.x.

[183] Mauro Maccarrone, Itai Bab, Tamás Bíró, Guy A. Cabral, Sudhansu K. Dey, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Justin C. Konje, George Kunos, Raphael Mechoulam, Pal Pacher, Keith A. Sharkey, and Andreas Zim-mer, “Endocannabinoid Signaling at the Periphery, 50 Years after THC,” Cell: Trends in Pharmacologi-cal Science 36, no. 5 (May 2015): 277–296.

[184] Sabine Steffens and Francois Mach, “Cannabinoid Receptors in Atherosclerosis,” Current Opin-ion in Lipidology 17, no. 5 (2006): 519–526. doi:10.1097/01.mol.0000245257.17764.b2.

[185] Ronen Durst, Haim Danenberg, Ruth Gallily, Raphael Mechoulam, Keren Meir, Etty Grad, Ronen Beeri, Thea Pugatsch, Elizabet Tarsish, and Chaim Lotan, “Cannabidiol, A Nonpsychoactive Cannabis Constituent, Protects against Myocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury,” American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 293, no. 6 (2007): H3602–H3607. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00098.2007.

[186] John C. Ashton and Paul F. Smith, “Cannabinoids and Cardiovascular Disease: The Out-look for Clinical Treatments,” Current Vascular Pharmacology 5, no. 3 (2007): 175–184. doi:10.2174/157016107781024109.

[187] Gabriella Aviello, Barbara Romano, Francesca Borrelli, Raffaele Capasso, Laura Gallo, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, and Angelo A. Izzo, “Chemopreventive Effect of the Non-psychotropic Phytocannabinoid Cannabidiol on Experimental Colon Cancer,” Journal of Molecular Medicine 90, no. 8 (2012): 925–934. doi:10.1007/s00109-011-0856-x.

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[189] A. A. Thomas, L. P. Wallner, V. P. Quinn, J. Slezak, S. K. Van Den Eeden, G. W. Chien, and S. J. Jacobsen, “Association between Cannabis Use and the Risk of Bladder Cancer: Results from the Cali-fornia Men’s Health Study,” Urology 85, iss. 2 (2015): 388–393.

[190] Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, “The Endocannabinoid System in Normal and Pathological Brain Age-ing,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 367, no. 1607 (2012): 3326–3341. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0388.

[191] J. Fernández-Ruiz, O. Sagredo, M. R. Pazos, C. García, R. Pertwee, R. Mechoulam, and J. Martínez-Orgado, “Cannabidiol for Neurodegenerative Disorders: Important New Clinical Applica-tions for This Phytocannabinoid?” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 75, no. 2 (May 25, 2012): 323–333.

[192] Gary L. Wenk, “Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease,” Animal Models of Neurological Disease I (1992): 29–64, doi:10.1385/0-89603-208-6:29.

[193] N. M. Kogan, E. Melamed, E. Wasserman, B. Raphael, A. Breuer, K. S. Stok, R. Sondergaard, A. V. Escudero, S. Baraghithy, M. Attar-Namdar, S. Friedlander-Barenboim, N. Mathavan, H. Isaksson, R. Mechoulam, R. Müller, A. Bajayo, Y. Gabet, and I. Bab, “Cannabidiol, A Major Nonpsychotropic Canna-bis Constituent, Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts,” Journal of Mineral and Bone Research 30, no. 10 (October 2015): 1905–1913.

[194] A. J. Hampson, M. Grimaldi, J. Axelrod, and D. Wink, “Cannabidiol and (−)∆9-Tetrahydrocan-nabinol Are Neuroprotective Antioxidants,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, no. 14 (1998): 8268–8273.

[195] N. Dobrosi, B. I. Toth, G. Nagy, A. Dozsa, T. Geczy, L. Nagy, C. C. Zouboulis, R. Paus, L. Kovacs, and T. Biro, “Endocannabinoids Enhance Lipid Synthesis and Apoptosis of Human Sebocytes via Cannabinoid Receptor-2-Mediated Signaling,” The FASEB Journal 22, no. 10 (2008): 3685– 3695. doi:10.1096/fj.0604877.

[238] G. A. Grierson, “The Hemp Plant in Sanskrit and Hindi Literature,” Indian Antiquary (September 1894): 260–262.

[239] A. R. Schier, N. P. Ribeiro, A. C. Silva, J. E. Hallak, J. A. Crippa, A. E. Nardi, and A. W. Zuardi, “Can-nabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent, As an Anxiolytic Drug,” Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatri 34, suppl. 1 (2012): S104–S110. PubMed PMID: 22729452.

[240] R. J. Bluett, J. C. Gamble-George, D. J. Hermanson, N. D. Hartley, L. J. Marnett, and S. Patel, “Central Anandamide Defciency Predicts StressInduced Anxiety: Behavioral Reversal through Endo-cannabinoid Augmentation,” Translational Psychiatry 8, no. 4 (2014): e408. doi:10.1038/ tp.2014.53.

[241] A. C. Campos, Z. Ortega, J. Palazuelos, M. V. Fogaça, D. C. Aguiar, J. Díaz-Alonso, S. Ortega-Guti-érrez, H. Vázquez-Villa, F. A. Moreira, M. Guzmán, I. Galve-Roperh, and F. S. Guimarães, “The Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol on Chronically Stressed Mice Depends on Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Involve-ment of the Endocannabinoid System,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 16, no. 6 (2013): 1407–1419. doi:10.1017/S1461145712001502.

[312] McGill University, “Cannabis: Potent Anti-depressant In Low Doses, Worsens Depression At High Doses,” ScienceDaily, October 24, 2007.[313] M. N. Hill, C. J. Hillard, F. R. Bambico, S. Patel, B. B. Gorzalka, and G. Gobbi, “The Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System for the Development of a Novel Class of Antidepressants,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 30, no. 9 (2009): 484–493. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2009.06.006.[314] R. Linge, L. Jiménez-Sánchez, L. Campa, F. Pilar-Cuéllar, R. Vidal, A. Pazos, and A. Adell Díaz, “Cannabidiol Induces Rapid-Acting Antidepressant-Like Effects and Enhances Cortical 5-HT/Glu-tamate Neurotransmission: Role of 5-HT1A Receptors,” Neuropharmacology 103 (2016): 16. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.12.017.

[315] Samir Haj-Dahmane and Roh-Yu Shen, “Endocannabinoid Signaling and the Regulation of the Serotonin System,” in Endocannabinoid Regulation of Monoamines in Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders, ed. Elisabeth J. Van Bockstaele (New York: Springer, 2013), 239–254. doi:10.1007/977-4614-7940-6_11.

[316] M. N. Hill, C. J. Hillard, F. R. Bambico, S. Patel, B. B. Gorzalka, and G. Gobbi, “The Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System for the Development of a Novel Class of Antidepressants,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 30, no. 9 (2009): 484–493. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2009.06.006.

[317] C. H. Ashton, P. B. Moore, P. Gallagher, and A. H. Young, “Cannabinoids in Bipolar Affective Dis-order: A Review and Discussion of Their Therapeutic Potential,” Journal of Psychopharmacology 19, no. 3 (2005): 293–300.

[318] A. Zuardi, J. Crippa, S. Dursun, S. Morais, J. Vilela, R. Sanches, and J. Hallak, “Cannabidiol Was Ineffective for Manic Episode of Bipolar Affective Disorder,” Journal of Psychopharmacology 24, no. 1 (2010): 135– 137. doi:10.1177/0269881108096521.

[319] Abir T. El-Alfy, Kelly Ivey, Keisha Robinson, Safwat Ahmed, Mohamed Radwan, Desmond Slade, Ikhlas Khan, Mahmoud ElSohly, and Samir Ross, “Antidepressant-Like Effect of ∆9-tetrahydrocannab-inol and Other Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa,” Journal of Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 95, no. 4 (June 2010): 434–442.

[320] A. R. de Mello Schier, N. P. de Oliveira Ribeiro, D. S. Coutinho, S. Machado, O. Arias-Carrión, J. A. Crippa, A. W. Zuardi, A. E. Nardi, and A. C. Silva, “Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa,” CNS Neurol Disorders – Drug Targets 13, no. 6 (2014): 953–960.

[321] Michael Moskowitz MD, personal communication with the authors, February 2, 2017. 

[382] J. Russell Reynolds, “On Some of the Therapeutical Uses of Indian Hemp,” in Archives of Medi-cine, vol. 2 (London, 1859), 154.

[383] R. Greco, V. Gasperi, M. Maccarrone, and C. Tassorelli, “The Endocannabinoid System and Mi-graine,” Experimental Neurololgy 224, no. 1 (2010): 85–91. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2010.03.029.

[384] Ethan Russo and Andrea Hohmann, “Role of Cannabinoids in Pain Management,” in Compre-hensive Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical, Interventional and Integrative Approaches, ed. Timo-thy R. Deer et al. (New York: Springer, 2013), 181–197.

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[386] E. B. Russo, “Cannabinoids in the Management of Diffcult to Treat Pain,” Journal of Therapeu-tics and Clinical Risk Management 4, no. 1 (2008): 245–259.

[387] S. Maione, F. Piscitelli, L. Gatta, D. Vita, L. De Petrocellis, E. Palazzo, V. de Novellis, and V. Di Marzo, “Non-psychoactive Cannabinoids Modulate the Descending Pathway of Antinociception in Anaesthetized Rats through Several Mechanisms of Action,” British Journal of Phramacology 162, no. 3 (2011): 584. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01063.x.

[388] W. Xiong, T. Cui, K. Cheng, F. Yang, S. R. Chen, D. Willenbring, Y. Guan, H. L. Pan, K. Ren, Y. Xu, and L. Zhang, “Cannabinoids Suppress Infammatory and Neuropathic Pain by Targeting Δ3 Gly-cine Receptors,” Journal of Experimental Medicine 209, no. 6 (2012): 1121–1134. doi:10.1084 /jem.20120242.

[389] M. DeGeorge, E. Dawson, P. Woster, L. Burke, and K. Bronstein, An Analysis of the Association between Marijuana Use and Potential Nonadherence in Patients Prescribed Hydrocodon (Baltimore: Ameritox, 2013), www.ameritox .com/wp-content/uploads/Ananalysisoftheassociationbetweenmari-jua nauseandpotentialnonadherence_AAPM2013.pdf.

[417] E. Murillo-Rodríguez, D. Millán-Aldaco, M. Palomero-Rivero, R. Mechoulam, and R. Druck-er-Colín, “The Nonpsychoactive Cannabis Constituent Cannabidiol Is a Wake-Inducing Agent,” Behav-ioral Neuroscience 122, no. 6 (2008): 1378–1382.

[418] Dr. Michael Moskowitz, personal communication with authors, October 2016

[419] D. W. Carley, S. Paviovic, M. Janelidze, and M. Radulovacki, “Functional Role for Cannabinoids in Respiratory Stability during Sleep,” Sleep 25, no. 4 (2002): 391–398. PubMed PMID: 12071539.

[420] Bharati Prasad, Miodrag G. Radulovacki, and David W. Carley, “Proof of Concept Trial of Dronab-inol in Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Frontiers in Psychiatry 4 (2013): 1.

[421] E. B. Russo, G. W. Guy, and P. J. Robson, “Cannabis, Pain, and Sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic Clinical Trials of Sativex, a Cannabis-Based Medicine,” Chemistry and Biodiversity 4, no. 8 (2007): 1729–1743.

[422] M. H. N. Chagas, A. L. Eckeli, A. W. Zuardi, M. A. Pena-Pereira, M. A. Sobreira-Neto, E. T. Sobreira, M. R. Camilo, M. M. Bergamaschi, C. H. Schenck, J. E. C. Hallak, V. Tumas, and J. A. S. Crippa, “Canna-bidiol Can Improve Complex Sleep-Related Behaviours Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Case Series,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 39 (2014): 564–566. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12179.